Biological challenges to living systems come in all sizes, from the sub-molecular scale of disease-causing agents, to the societal level of feeding a growing population, to the planetary level of biome loss due to rising temperatures. Humans have addressed these challenges in many ways, often assisted by other biological agents such as penicillin from fungi to treat septicemia , nitrogen-fixing bacteria to fertilize crops, and mangrove forests to protect island coastlines. The need for biological solutions to global challenges has never been greater, as is the need to find novel nature-based solutions that require little in the way of fossil fuels and other industrial raw materials. In this comps section, you will be asked to investigate how a particular nature-based solution can be developed and used to meet a particular challenge, such as disease, food instability, industrial pollution, and climate change.